Key words: Caucasian nations, religious differences of Caucasian nations, cultural differences of Caucasian nations, “historic enmity” between Caucasian nations, tsarist Russia, Seim, Soviet Russia, Caucasus Confederation during immigration period, Russia and independent Caucasus states, West and Caucasian nations
Today, we should take into consideration the history and development of the idea and its place between reality and utopia before we think about the basis of the problems in Caucasus region. We consider that the reasons of the place of “Caucasus Unity” idea are following:
1. Occupation of Caucasus nations – The Azerbaijan Turks, The Georgian and The Armenian under different conditions (independent, dependent and without status) by tsarist Russia. For instance, South Azerbaijan Turks were thrown away from an independent state (Gajars), The Georgian were half-independently occupied (they remained as vassal of Ottomans, Safavies and Gajars for a long time), but the Armenian went into power of Russia without any status. Maybe, it is not considered necessary mostly. But, regarding to us, these cases which happened in 18th and 19th century played an important role in collapse of tsarist Russia.
2. Religious differences between Caucasian nations. The second important reason of the place of Caucasus Unity idea between reality and utopia is different religions and beliefs of Caucasian nations. Specially, it is important to value the role of religions in life of Caucasian nations and nowadays conflicts between them. Anyways, in the last two millenniums, it has been essential that the nations have 3 monotheistic religions. The religion factor still plays important role in the conflicts in Caucasus. We think, outside forces have got benefits from the conflict based on religion factor more than Caucasus nations their selves. In any case, the religious factor has an important place in the creation of new center of conflict.
3. The “historic enmity” issue between Caucasus nations. One of the reasons of the place of Caucasus unity idea between reality and utopia is either friendship or enmity between Caucasus nations. But in any case, it is obvious that relationships between Caucasian nations have been based on enmity. There are many right options, but of course also exaggeration. For instance, the enmity between Armenians and Azerbaijani Turks is a product of last two centuries and tsarist Russia, soviet Russia and some European countries played an important role in this process. In fact, these historical enmities of Armenians against Azerbaijani Turks or to Georgians have appeared after Russia’s “Great Armenia” game in 19th century and it is continuing.
4. The claims relate to land and cultural monuments. One of the issues which are waiting for it solve is land and cultural monuments issue. For us, Caucasus unity idea will stay as utopia as far as the claim to lands and especially cultural monuments issue will not be solved.
5. Attitude to Western ideas and Western culture. The attitude of Caucasian nations to western ideas and culture has never been mono semantic. This difference is because of different religious, culture and national identical values. In the same time, attitude of the West is also different to Caucasian nations.
The first manifestation of the idea of Caucasus union had emerged as a response to intention to invade North Caucasus, and following South Caucasus tsarist Russia, in second half eighteenth century. The strengthening position of Russia had been beginning of a new stage in the world also including above-mentioned region on this century, on light of the weakening powers of Safavies and the Ottomans in the Caucasus especially South Caucasus. So, particularly after fall of Safavies (1736) Caucasian nations (Turks, Lezgins, Avars, Chechens and etc.) as well as numerous peoples of South Caucasus (Azerbaijan Turks, Georgians and etc.) brought into subjection a new established empire by Nadir Shah Afshar with military and propaganda, but after death his assassination (1747) laid stepped out virtually independent, semi-independent.
We consider that, demonstration unity in many cases and fighting each-other from time to time especially Georgians and Azerbaijani Turks from peoples of South Caucasus, belonging to this period. In any case, at second half of eighteenth century in Turkish khanate established at northern Azerbaijan (Karabakh, Ganja, Sheki, Yerevan and others) were not, only hostile relations with Kartli-Kakheti kingdom Georgian origin. At the same time, they fought together against Russian empires.
We want to say is that, major changes taking place in the eighteenth century, particularly the fall of Safavies, followed by failure of entire Afshars played an important role in fate of nations of Caucasus, each nation has tried to use these changes for their national interests. However, as we shall see following pages, on either positive or negative mean the share from changes had happened in the eighteenth century in the Caucasus, especially in the South Caucasus was not same for all nations on the contrary, were nations have won but some nations lost more much.
Moreover, all of them had influenced to the idea of Caucasus unity, in positive or negative sense.
a) the occupation of territories Azerbaijani Turks (former Safavies, Afshars and Gajars) and Georgian, and its results for aboriginal population Azerbaijani Turks and Georgians, and migrant Armenians, and political statuses given by tsarist Russia after completed occupation for aboriginal and migrant people of the Caucasus.
Certainly, we consider that, Muslims, including Muslim Turks have been most losing, Christians, including Christian Armenians have been most earning in the eighteenth century, from significant changes taking place in the Caucasus, including at the South Caucasus, especially after disappearing from history stage of Safavies as well as the Turkish-Muslim state, and alongside unfortunate endings of effort to establish government the other Muslim Turkish state Afshars its place but also at the same time the fall of the Ottoman Empire weak situation.
The weakening of the Turkic-Muslim state of the Ottoman Empire, the deletion of the Safavies from the stage of history, and the unfortunate endings of Afshars taken its place, have been major blow for all Muslim peoples of the Caucasus last, especially for the Muslim Turks.
Doubtless, the weakening or after complete disappearance Turkic-Muslim states, the establishing of new conditions were fit most for the Christian states, including Russia, and the UK in this region. Thus, the Russia according its “divide and rule” policy put against Georgian kingdom with Turkish khanates, as well as had rubbed unity and solidarity strengthening seeds of discord between them with put them face to face to the people of the North Caucasus. Thus, Tsarist Russia prepared the ground to seize the Caucasus, in the second half of the eighteenth century, especially in the nineteenth century, almost all the region has been able to occupy. In particular, Armenians who were emigrant and one of the minor people in the Caucasus, including in the South Caucasus until the invasion of tsarist Russia, had played great role in the occupation of Kartli-Kakheti and North Azerbaijan Turkish Khanates.
Much to regret, Armenians, as an emigrant population, without own motherland in Caucasus had played important role at lost in the later failure of the Union among Caucasus nations in the end of the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century.
There certainly should be noted that, Azerbaijani Turks as a plucked part of an independent state in northern Azerbaijan (Gajars), Georgians as vassals (long period Ottoman, Safavies and Gajars), and Armenians – Hays as an emigrant population of Caucasus, were subjected to the Tsarist Russia while occupation and had passed without a status under the rule of tsarist Russia. In any case, at that time, negotiating Tsarist Russia and Gajars with carried by North Azerbaijan Turkish khanates and Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti. Tsarist Russia has created so-called false “Armenian province” at part of the South Caucasus, the Muslim-Turkish lands in Yerevan and Nakhchivan khanates occupied by its army, and had quartered emigrant Armenians in these territories, but it didn’t have long life. İt seems that, the tsarist imperial ideologists understood later that, the so-called false “Armenian province” is not yet the real thing, and that there are parties that were on the contrary of interests Tsarist regime.
Because, if would stay and live of the “Armenian province” central government had to create “Georgian province”, “Turkish-Tatar province” and other similar regions were also set up. But this doesn’t complete agreed with the tsar’s “divide and rule” policy.
In generally, this fact and reality- from South Caucasus nations North Azerbaijani Turks, Georgians and Armenians were subjected to the Tsarist Russia by different statuses has been an important factor contributing to the struggle against the empire together or separately and had defined their future steps. We must pay attention that, compare Armenians with Turkic khanates of the northern Azerbaijan and Kartli-Kakheti kingdom they had own states, they had exposed to the invasion of tsarist Russia, but also they in some cases struck together against this occupation. Of course, all this does not mean deny the existence of the Armenians in the region those times. They lived and worked at Yerevan, Karabakh, Nakhchivan khanates as a emigrant population.
But one thing is true that, the Turks of North Azerbaijan (Karabakh, Sheki, Guba, Yerevan, Baku, Ganja, Nakhchivan’s website.) The Georgians (Kartli-Kakheti website.) had been exposed as State, Nation and Territory by tsarist Russia, but Armenians had not even any local political structure, and they lived as inhabitants of Yerevan, Karabakh, Nakhchivan in these khanates.
Therefore, for that time, was more convincing demonstrating the unity of Georgians and Azerbaijan Turks on idea Caucasus Union in relation neither to the Russia or Turkey. At the same time, we have known that, after the occupation of tsarist Russia, Georgians and Azerbaijani Turks, including the North Caucasus under the leadership of Sheikh Shamil were taking the fight against colonialism. In particularly, the freedom struggle against tsarist Russia, led by Sheikh Shamil in the Caucasus is the most obvious example of Union nations of Caucasus. Today almost all peoples of the Caucasus consider Sheikh Shamil a symbol of unity for themselves. After the collapse of Tsarist Russia or on the eve of collapse (1905-1918-years) the fighting for independence of Georgians, and South Azerbaijani Turks, and many organizations in the North Caucasus peoples can be considered a continuation of the union.
b) Two faces of the realization of the idea of the Caucasian community, voluntary and coercive.
The realization of the idea of unity of Caucasus happened twice in the twentieth century. However, one of them in the voluntary situation and the need for the second case took place with wish Soviet Russia. The combination the peoples of the Caucasus in a single state for the first time happened in fact, after the collapse of imperial Russia (1917) when representatives of three people to the South Caucasus common occurrence took place in a state institution in Tbilisi.
Thus, in February 1917, tsarist Russia after the fall of the Tsarist regime in the February bourgeois revolution and by the decision of the interim government was established in Petrograd on March 9 in the South Caucasus in the newly created body – the Special Committee of the South Caucasus was given. However, on October 25 of that year, there was a dual power Bolshevik coup in Russia. On November 11, 1917, the RSFSR did not want to obey the Georgian Social-Democrat bureau SPC (Mensheviks), the Azerbaijani “Musavat” Armenian “Dashnaktsutun” parties and the right of their meeting in Tbilisi, the Russian Social-Revolutionists of the Bolshevik government refusing to recognize the authority of the ” made a decision to make Independent Caucasus the government.
“Thus, instead of a special committee of the South Caucasus, to manage the South Caucasus under Y.P. Gegeckor’s the chairmanship created of the Transcaucasian commissariat on November 15 in Tbilisi.
The Caucasus supreme authority of National Council of the Transcaucasian Seim (parliament) opened in a meeting of the elected deputies of the Russian from South Caucasus at Tbilisi in early February 1918, and it became the center of a major power in the region.
According to the Seim, which began its work on February 23, the three parties – “Musavat” (the Turks), “Dashnaktsutun” (Armenians) and the Social-Democratic Party-Mensheviks (the Georgians) were represented. However, the Esers, menshevik-hummatists, socialists, Ittihad, took part in the national-democrats and other political organizations in the Seim.
During this period, Ottoman Empaire did not accept the policy pursued by the Georgian and Armenian in the Seim, and has declared war against them. The war was not over 8 days. The Turks had taken the Batum on April 15, and the Gars had encircled by them. By the insistence of Azerbaijani-Turkish fraction insists that the sovereignty of the Transcaucasian Seim declared the sovereignty of South Caucasus on April 22. However, the situation was not normal at Seim. Using a complicated situation, Armenians expanded scale provocations against Muslims. Armenians began mass genocide of the Turkish-Muslim with the patronage and help of the Russians, in March 1918. Such as the internal contradictions was caused to the collapse of the Federal Democratic Republic of Transcaucasia.
After leaving of Seim by Georgia’s from structure of the Republic of Caucasus in May 26, 1918, the Seim collapsed, and the idea of Caucasian unity remained unfinished.
Turkish intellectuals of the Republic of Azerbaijan took the lead factor during the Caucasian Federation. At that time, the founder of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and author of Caucasus Confederation idea, the first President Mahammad Amin Rasulzadeh wrote: “I imagine the Azerbaijan as part of confederate Caucasus Union state. The alliance is part of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and the North Caucasus should be included to the structure of this Union State.
“This idea in November 1919, of the participants of the 2nd Congress of “Musavat”, defending the Rasulzadeh’s initiative on this idea at this congress, adopted a resolution on the merger of union Caucasus republics in the Caucasus Confederation.
In addition to the well-known Turkish thinkers of this era Ali bey Huseynzadeh, Ahmed bey Agaoglu and Ali Mardan Topchubashov have defended the idea of Caucasian unity according to Rasulzadeh’s idea.
Even Topchubashov wrote that, in his article “The creation of the Azerbaijan Republic” penned in 1918, the climate and nature itself focusing on the three South Caucasus nations (Turks, Georgians and Armenians) on the basis of common political living as well as the existence in the Swiss confederation. “The idea of Confederation structure is pretty widespread in the South Caucasus. This thought passed from words to deed with notified the independence of South Caucasus and creation of a management this year (1918) on April 9 in the country, with the created an Authority. This point of view has been living, among those who want to join– people of the North and South Caucasus, the Armenians, Georgians, Azerbaijanis, the liberals, the nationalist parties, and social-democratic parties”.
Even at that time, the ideologist of Turanism Ali bey Huseynzadeh,had consider possible the formation of the Federation of Caucasus. T. Svyatocovski writes that A.Huseynzadeh deals on three choose on the South Caucasus region for that period: 1) the Caucasian Federation; 2) independent Turkish, Georgian and Armenian governments; and 3) a combination of Caucasian Turks to Turkey.
We think that, the establishing of Transcaucasian Federation by the Soviet Union during the period of the Union Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) enough interestingly as neutralize and imitation of this great idea against Caucasus nations, who want escape from Soviet occupation and wishes peace to all Caucasus. But this Union realized, as required under the dictates of the union of Soviet Russia. Still, The Caucasus Bureau of the RK (b) party, on November 3, 1921, and political Bureau Central Committee (b) party on November 29 had adopted a resolution on the establishment of the Transcaucasian Federation. The combine of all communist organizations under of unit party leadership at the first congress of the united party Communists Caucasus held in Tbilisi on 18-22 February 1922 pursued to the objective “to focus of the management of the entire South Caucasus in the hands of the center”. Because according to “left” nationality, ethnicity, national, cultural and national independence belonging to the past and doomed concepts. Samad Aghamalioglu, who fought actively for the establishment of the Transcaucasian Federation made a speech from point of view Marxism-Leninism “friendship of peoples” wrote that, we must be cut off the roots of nationalism that against an idea of ZSRFR combination. Ostensibly, “rightists” had to understand that there is no any distinction among the Azerbaijani Turks, Armenians and Georgians: “I have never felt the national distinction, when I was living s in the Armenian village. That is why, our tale and music are compatible with each other. I have lived among Georgians, very long time and they are very close to our own customs and traditions”. “Ruhollah Akhundov wrote that, there is no need of Soviet Azerbaijan’s independence outside of Soviet Russia.
In this regard, Akhundov claimed that the direct instigation of Russia, the unification of the three South Caucasus countries as a strengthening of the peace opposition against this merger, the Dashnak and Menshevik intellectuals, and are not alone. According to him, France, Britain and other countries with dividing forces want easily removing of Council Republiks by demand separated from each other Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia and are completely all of them from Russia. However, the life of the TSFSR in the Soviet Union did not take long and then separately for each country in the South Caucasus was a member independent of the Soviet Union.
c) The idea of Caucasusism or Caucasus Union during the migration.
Caucasusism was one of the most popular ideas, among thinkers who has left the North Azerbaijasn and lived emigration life, after the establishment of the Soviet Union. So, with Alimardan Topchubashov’s lidership and initiative immigrants from Caucasus had gathered in the Paris office of the Azerbaijan Republic, and had discussed “Caucasian Confederation” on May 8, 1921. As a result of the discussion signed a joint agreement among of the North Caucasus, Georgian and Armenian delegations.
Further, the independent Caucasus Committee was created in 1927 in Poland, where M.A.Rasulzadeh and M.A.Mehdiyev from Azerbaijan, N.Jardaniya, A.Chxenkeli, A.Asantnani, S.Mdivani from Georgia, and M.Sunsev I.Xumsov from North Caucasus were represented there.
One of the Caucasusism ideologists was M.Ə.Rasulzadeh, who also was ideologist of Azerbaijani Turks. According to him, Azerbaijan inspired by the national existence understood that there is no salvation outside of the political unity of the people of Confederation of Independent Caucasus. Rasulzadeh wrote: “We defend an idea an independent Caucasus Confederation as a most pressing thesis of the time. “This meant that, with the idea of the Caucasian Union Rasulzadeh put forward the idea of national reconciliation in the interest of the serious political and theoretical thesis.
According to the Rasulzadeh, the idea of Turkish Union cannot be a hindrance for Azerbaijan as an independent Turkish state, to join to the Caucasus Confederation; Slavic Union is not to hinder the formation of Czechoslovak state.
At the same time Rasulzadeh wrote that, today, the thinkers of Azerbaijan and dignitaries (A.Aghaoglu, A.M.Topcubashov, M.E.Rasulzadeh and etc.) stand behind an idea Caucasian Union as had put forward this idea and espoused in 1918-1920: “This problem is the urgent today, how was so important in 1918. Confederation movements among immigrants in exile just proof this claim”.
In this mean, Georgians, Azerbaijanis, and northern Caucasians signing a pact, chose right way with the creation of Caucasus Republics Confederation in Paris in 1934. Caucasian conference held 11-16 December, in 1952 in Munich, Germany with activity of Rasulzadeh and his Georgian friends in exile. Rasulzadeh believed that the creation of such union, which important factors are as follows: First, “the people of the Caucasus has no association with Russia the as cultural, national and race, second, «an economy from point of view the Caucasus, a self-sufficient and independent unity, “third, «a strategic point of view, the Caucasus as a whole and etc”.
As we seen, Rasulzadeh with defense the national idea, also offered political and ideological proposals for co-ordination aspects with Caucasusism idea.
D) Religious beliefs and sectarian differences among the peoples of the Caucasus.
The maintaining an important place of religious problem is no doubt, at remaining of Caucasus unity idea between reality and utopia. It is no secret that the religious beliefs, as well as between the various sects of a religion not only of individual nations, even in the face of ethnic groups, which has the same origin. Or peoples of different backgrounds or religious denomination, and peoples with religious belief is completely contrary been in the same place-side. Frankly speaking, the fate of the peoples of the Caucasus, including the idea of Caucasus or religious sects in terms of the positive role of religious belief is a little difficult to talk about them. However, we are not agreeing with the idea that appearance Christianity and Islam completely contrary to the unity of religions as widespread religious among the peoples of the Caucasus. Because, historically to be in the same religious can’t prevented occupation and struggle for independence. All steps for unity must prevent national elements in region. Especially the assimilation of national identity, deletion of national statehood, estranging of national territories are the important elements here, which must be safety. In this respect, the occupation by tsarist Russia of Turkish-Muslim and Guba Karabakh khanates or Georgian-Christian Kartl-Kakheti kingdom has basically the same character. Also, in addition tsarist Russia putting against Azerbaijanis Turkic-Muslims seemingly Christian religious brothers, Georgians, Armenians pursued rather than its own interests. However, in the case of this heinous Tsarist Russia did not just Christian Armenians and Muslim Azerbaijanis and Christian Georgians Christian Armenians and Muslim Turks Muslim Lezgins have to face from time to time.
But it is the important problem that, Muslims and Azerbaijanis undergo more assimilated by Russians’ than their religious brothers -Christian Armenians and, Georgians. In any case, the Caucasian Muslims, including Turkic-Muslim population of north Azerbaijan’s have been subjected to more pressure and faced with injustices in the many areas (press, theater, school, etc.), than Caucasian Christians. The Turkish identity of Muslim population in North Azerbaijan played an important role in here, Russia always effort annihilate them, that’s why hardly tried to break connection with Gajars and the Ottomans. In other words, it is not accidentally, that predominantly Turks were most harmed and suffered among the Muslim population of the Caucasus during; on the contrary, the Christian populations of the Armenians were more profited in the Caucasus in the last two centuries in the periods of tsarist Russia and Soviet Russia.
We want to say is that, Russia and European countries played an important role in the situation that, Caucasian peoples didn’t join around the idea of Caucasusism, on the contrary by the reasons of as problems religious discrimination and other factors were hostile to each other, at least in the last two centuries. In generally, up and down, the issue of religious discrimination continues today. The religious problem remains a key factor conflicts between the peoples of the Caucasus in the present-day.
In other words, outside forces have always benefited from religious factor, more than Caucasian peoples, and they continue to benefit from todays. In any case, the religious factor has an important place in the creation of new centers of conflict or the flushing conflicts inevitably.
f) The problem of national-historical enmity among the Caucasian people” the land and cultural monuments claims
The idea of maintaining the unity of the Caucasian peoples in the Caucasus historically between reality and utopia based on each other, as friends or enemies in the way it approaches the issue of national identity. In any case, as we known the last two centuries of relations between the peoples of the Caucasus is not only a religion, is based on the national historic animosity. In this issue, as well as the right moments, and is allowed to exaggeration from ideological point of view. For example, creating historical enemy image of Azerbaijani Turks for the Armenians is a product of the last two centuries which created by that tsarist Russia, Soviet Russia and some European countries, and have played an important role in this problem-situation their ideologists. In fact, the Armenians and the Turks’ historic enmity “game appeared in the early 19th century between these countries, with Great Armenia idea of Russia especially, its imperialist ideologists as Griboedoff and etc. and it still ongoing. Therefore, “we believe that the issue is an extremely sensitive issue national-historical enmity among the Caucasian peoples’, Great attention should be paid Games played on this problem. If the nations always focused on historic-national hostile, even if they written as if such date, national historic fiction, fairy tales, then they not only have to unite under one roof so they will not be able to live in peace as neighbors. In this mean, the Armenian government and its nationalist circles (Dashnaktsutun’s etc.) The Armenians must, soil their claims against Georgia, and cultural monuments of Azerbaijan urgently needed. In particularly, Armenians as “emigrant” in Caucasus, but rather the Armenians in the world should understand one thing, it may not be always such violate peace, as the last two centuries, with intercession of Russian and other Western countries. In this case, would be late impossible to live with the rest of the Armenians in the neighboring nations without intercession their patrons.
We believe that the Armenians immediately should abandon back from Azerbaijani lands and should understand Turks aren’t their enemy, and they didn’t see Azerbaijanis their historical enemy, they must leave occupying territories.
In addition, the administration has so far Armenia must apologize officially for the genocide march 31 1918, and genocide, February 26, 1992, and etc. because they did all of enmity against Azerbaijan by help super powers, including Russia’s.
In generally, the whole of the Caucasus peoples must value all pretensions on lands and cultural monuments seriously and intellectually put forward against each other. To do this, must be created a joint commission. Not only three South Caucasus nations (Georgians, Azerbaijanis, Armenians), but also the peoples of the North Caucasus should be involved to the process. For the establishment of peace and unity in the Caucasus and the entire, Caucasus nations must become to comprehensive clear on territorial and cultural monuments problems. So, it is can be great mistake hold outside the North Caucasus peoples (Lezgins, Avars, Chechens, Ossetians, kumıks, tabasarans, Darband Turks etc,) in this problem.
In our opinion, all of still not find its own solution, or unless impossible to reach a consensus the idea of union of Caucasus will continue it’s wavering between the idea of utopia and realism.
The peoples of the Caucasus began to effort for the union after the collapse of the Soviet Union – in 1991. As a first step in this direction in 1989, was founded the Assembly of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus and this organization joined the Chechens, the Kabardins, adıgeis, abazins, abazas and other peoples of Caucasus and became a Confederation in 1991. The first President of Chechen Republic Jovher Dudayev was initiator of round table for members of “Caucasus House” organizations in Grozny, in September 1992. “Common Caucasian House” was registered as a forum and President Jovhar Dudayev was held its leader. The idea of creating a general forum of the “Caucasus House” stopped; with begin of the war in Chechnya. Later, Georgia and Azerbaijan has received this mission, and this is reflected in the conference in held Baku. The invitation had been done to the Caucasian peoples of the creation of Common Caucasian House for prevent ethnic conflicts in this region. Already “Caucasian House”, “Federation of Peoples of the Caucasus”, “Caucasian Confederation” thrown out ideas in the press, a number of major such as congresses held in big cities like that Tbilisi, Baku, Nalchik, Makhachkala, and Grozny.
At present, some political scientists, researchers, scientists, public figures and others associated with the idea put forward different views on Caucasusism Azerbaijan and beyond. Some consider that the idea and identity of Caucasusism is historical event, as a psychological phenomenon certain formed from centuries.
Academic Afrand Dashdamirov suppose that, the individual ethnic groups (Turkish, Slavic, Dagestan peoples and b.) united under the name of the Caucasian culture and history of the Caucasus, the Caucasus traditions, Caucasian mentality by reason living the same historical events, share a common culture, also in terms from time to time approached each other and become related for centuries
The conflicts had happened between people of Azerbaijan and Armenian peoples in the last century, including the 1905-1906 years Armenian-Muslim conflict, and the genocide of Azerbaijani Turks on March 30-31, the giving of Zangezur to Armenia at 1920, the establishment of and Nagorno-Karabakh, hundreds of thousands of Azerbaijanis were deported from their native lands in Armenia in 1948-1953, on 26 February Khojaly genocide, occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and 7 districts surrounding it, had damaged in significant extent the idea of Caucasus Unity.
The Armenian chauvinists and Russian nationalists had played an important role in these genocides committed against the Azerbaijan people. In any case, we never forget that, Armenians without Russian soldiers could not carry out alone the Azerbaijan-Turkish genocide. So, we must deeply understand the essence of this genocide and pass right result. This means that, we must not forget that Russia is the main shareholder genocides had procreated by Armenia. We believe that the realization of the idea of the Caucasian community, first and foremost, the leadership of Armenia, Armenian nationalists, should give up their claims to the territorial unity and of the cultural monuments of Azerbaijan and Georgia. Indeed, for refusal of Armenian leadership and its nationalist circles from these claims, also Armenia need at first to escape from is the toy of primarily in Russia and other countries.
We believe that the implementation of the Confederation of Caucasus, Azerbaijan and Georgia should come together in the first place.
In any case, however, any step taken by Azerbaijan and Georgia to become a confederate state in the region, the situation can change to positive sense. Because the agreement between Georgia as a Christian and Azerbaijan as a Muslim country, on joint state and living can be a good example for the other countries of the region’s Muslim and Christian. In this mean, the establishing of confederation of the two countries- the state of Georgia and Azerbaijan will be reason of significant achievements in the political, military, economic, cultural, education and other areas. From our opinion, if Georgia and Azerbaijan to join as a confederation state,
this will be an incentive for the peoples of the North Caucasus.
PhD on History of Philosophy,
Senior scientific researcher of the Philosophy Institute
of National Scientific Academy of Azerbaijan (NSAA),
Associate professor of science-education center Taffakkur University
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