Recently, the world experienced a rapid process of change and transformation. One of the most important achievements of the public administration of a country is to present public services in the best possible way. Most countries fulfill changing and transformation in their economic, political, and administrative systems due to pressure of globalization, communication technologies, and competition, which occur in world since several decade.
Sincethe concept of public administration is multifaceted and complex, there is no single definition in administrative law. Management is widely regarded as a purposeful influence on organizational activities and managed assets. The main and the first sign of public administration is its general character as a subject of administrative law. According to this character, general governance combines organizational, functional and legal aspects that distinguish it from other areas of governance.
Legal and economic reforms in the Republic of Azerbaijan have caused a radical change in the system of public administration. In the new Constitution of the Republic, with the establishment of the principle of separation of powers (Article 7), the leading state body of the state apparatus was changed to the executive bodies, and the division of labor was replaced by the division of power.
The public administration system should clarify the functions and goals of each body, coordinate processes, ensure the conformity of the organizational structure of its bodies to strategic goals, develop and implement an effective system of delegating authority, improve formal procedures and mechanisms for decision-making, decision-making and decision-making. establishing criteria for assessing quality, widespread use of collegial forms of decision-making, transparency in decision-making processes, enhancing the involvement of employees in decision-making processes, improving control mechanisms, establishing an effective feedback system, and recruitment and promotion. development of systems of performance indicators, standards and standards, taking into account the specifics of each sector .
Public administration mechanism in Azerbaijan
Let’s look at the mechanism of public administration in the country. Public administration in the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the principle of separation of powers. In line with the traditional concept of separation of powers, the Constitution establishes that the executive power belongs to the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and the legislative power is exercised by the Parliament of the Republic of Azerbaijan – the Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and the judicial power by independent courts.
The legislative power in the Republic of Azerbaijan is exercised by the Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan consists of 125 deputies.
Deputies of the Milli Mejlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan are elected on the basis of major electoral system, general, equal and direct suffrage by free, personal and secret ballot.
Article 101. Foundations of elections of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan I. The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan is elected for a 7-year term by way of universal, direct and equal suffrage, by free, personal and secret ballot. The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan may call extraordinary elections of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. II. The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan is elected by a majority of half of the votes. III. If required majority has not achieved in the first round of voting, then second round will be held on second Sunday after the first round. Only two candidates who gained more votes than others in the first round, or two candidates following closely the first ones, should they recall their candidatures, will take part in the second round of elections. IV. The candidate having collected majority of votes in the second round of elections is considered to be elected the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. V. In case the conduct of the Presidential Election of the Republic of Azerbaijan is not held due to military operations under a state of war, the term of office of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan shall be extended until the end of military operations. The decision on this matter shall be adopted by the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the basis of the application of the state body organizing elections (referendum). VI. Procedure of implementation of the present Article is prescribed by law.
Article 103. Oath of a person elected the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan I. A person elected the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, within 3 days of announcement of results of elections of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, takes an oath with participation of judges of Constitutional Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan: “Carrying out powers of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan I swear to follow the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan, protect sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, to serve people”. II. The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan shall be considered to enter on the execution of his office upon having taken the presidential oath.
Article 103 -1 . Vice-presidents of the Republic of Azerbaijan I. The First Vice-President and Vice-Presidents of the Republic of Azerbaijan are appointed and dismissed by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. II. A citizen of the Republic of Azerbaijan who has the right to participate in elections, has higher education and has no obligations to other states may be appointed to the position of Vice-President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan establishes the Cabinet of Ministers for the purpose of exercising its executive powers. The Cabinet of Ministers is the President’s highest executive body, subordinate to and responsible to the President.
Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Republic of Azerbaijan , Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Population of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Azerbaijan,
Ministry of Youth and Sport of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan , Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Azerbaijan , Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Azerbaijan , Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Azerbaijan , Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Azerbaijan , Ministry of Defense Industry of the Republic of Azerbaijan , Ministry of Transport, Communications and High Technologies of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Ministry of Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Ministry of Taxes of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
There are state organizations and committees such as the State Customs Committee, State Committee for Work with Religious Organizations, National Bank of the Republic of Azerbaijan, State Oil Fund, State Committee for Refugees and IDPs, State Statistical Committee, State Committee for Work with Azerbaijanis living abroad.
Prior to independence, Azerbaijan had an administrative-command system in the state administration, which meant that the management process was strictly followed by the center’s directives. It is well-known that during the administrative-command system it is impossible to see the local conditions, opportunities and other factors from the center. However, even if the orders, orders, instructions from the center were wrong, the head of the enterprise had to do it without compromise. The state property on the means of production causes absolute monopoly, bureaucratization and deferral, and creates a complex, multi-level management apparatus. In some cases, the number of employees in the governing bodies exceeds the number of workers in the manufacturing sector. This also results in an artificial increase in costs and lower production efficiency .
The development of the national economy depends on how the governing bodies are organized and the degree of their activity and flexibility.
Since independence, Azerbaijan has undergone significant changes at all levels of public administration, including in the manufacturing sector. The factors that influence decision-making in the current transitional economy have also been changed, which can be divided into two periods:
1. From the time of independence in 1994 there was a very acute crisis in all levels of society. The rapid deterioration of money, the crisis in the financial and banking system and the energy complex, the poor purchasing power of the population in unstable political conditions, and the loss of territories made the situation worse and made it difficult to make the final decisions. Most of the strategic decisions related to the crisis were made under uncertainty. Identifying possible alternatives and evaluating their consequences in such rapidly changing situations faced great challenges.
2. Since 1994, the political situation in Azerbaijan has been gradually stabilizing. Termination of military operations created conditions for political stabilization, which allowed the economy to be completely bankrupt. From this period, the creation of the basis for foreign investment attraction, gradual inflation prevention, and economic development of the country with the help of the oil industry. All these factors have helped to identify and evaluate possible alternatives, to make sound, masonic decisions .
However, it is important to note that during the first and second stages, the situation with the management process is still difficult, as there are enough qualified management personnel in the country, capable of managing and decision-making in the context of mixed economy. This can be applied to both enterprises and organizations, as well as to public administration bodies.
The creation of mechanisms necessary for decision making on the basis of high efficiency and transparency within the public sector is still in its infancy. One of the reasons for this is that the decision-making process in Azerbaijan is still largely dependent on the will of individuals.
An institutional structure must be created in Azerbaijan to ensure accountability, transparency and efficiency of the governance process. To do this, the reasons for the preference of informal mechanisms and interactions should be examined more rigorously, and as a result incentives should be created to increase accountability, transparency and efficiency in the decision-making process. Specifically, powers and responsibilities should be developed, simplified but formal rules and procedures for decision-making should be established, and effective decision-making procedures should be established. At the same time, it is necessary to revise the procedures and procedures for delegating authority to make responsible decisions at a lower level to ensure co-ordination, transparency and increased efficiency.
Proper organization of public administration can be considered as one of the most important factors contributing to the acceleration of economic development in the country. For the past 11 years, our country has been among the fastest growing economies in the world, as evidenced by reputable economic institutions of the world. The Davos Economic Forum in 2014 ranked 38th in the economy of Azerbaijan for its competitiveness in the world .
The state of Azerbaijan follows the path of independence and development. The economic and financial crisis that plagued the world a few years ago, as well as adverse events and conflicts in the region did not affect the successful development of Azerbaijan.
As a result of well-thought-out economic management in the country, a solid financial and economic base has been established in the country, dynamic development of the non-oil sector and diversification of the country’s economy, balanced development of the regions, efficient international economic cooperation, and integration of the world economy. Positive changes have taken place to improve welfare.
Recent public administration reforms include the establishment of modern management mechanisms. Thus, with the use of internet portals to accelerate the exchange of information in a globalized world, public administration has been greatly improved. The created virtual environment has prompted citizens to solve their problems more quickly. It should be noted that the “Easy Service” has recently been put into use by citizens. Within the framework of this service the problems and other issues of the citizens of the country or of foreign citizens are solved in the shortest possible time. The ASAN Service Centers were established under the State Agency for Citizen Service and Social Innovation under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan in accordance with the Presidential Decree No. 685 dated July 13, 2012 .
Economic independence is the prerequisite for the implementation of all social, economic, legal and political changes envisaged to be implemented in our country at present. In a broader sense, the concept of economic independence implies the ability and right of the state and non-state structures to implement independent socio-economic policies and foreign economic activities throughout the country for the benefit of all people.
Ensuring economic security in the Republic of Azerbaijan can be considered as an objective necessity. Before commenting on this problem, it should be noted that the problem of economic security for each country has a specific historical meaning at different stages of the economic system development. Economic security for Azerbaijan should be one of the main challenges of the 21st century.
Improving the style and effectiveness of public administration
Today, the need to improve the style of public administration is more and more evident. Thus, fundamentally new methods of public administration should be reflected in new forms of communication, public authorities and social communication of citizens.
Demonstrate the characteristics of political leadership in modern times, and on the other hand, the political behavior styles are capable of understanding and addressing the challenges of socio-economic development and global planning. gave rise to an idea of a very successful synthesis and reconciliation with the outlook.
Leadership style is a relatively robust system of methods, methods and forms of leadership practice. In addition, the style of management refers to the leader’s behavior in the preparation and implementation of management decisions.
Public administration style is a complex event, a multi-element system. It is based on certain synthesis of organizational norms, information, and social processes, and is a subjective factor involved in managing the technical parameters of public administration, namely, objective startups, gene pool, intellectual development, societal psychosocial strength, and historical experience. It can also be argued that the style constitutes a reflection of the specificity of objective and subjective unity, and the specific management of society.
It is not just style management that manifests itself as a science, but as art, as well as exploitation, not only as an experience, but as a sense of heuristics. The style allows each participant to open his or her creative essence to the fullest extent by relying on defined structures, norms, forms, methods and other controls.
Under the style of public administration, one can argue that a socially effective and ever-evolving system of tools, means, forms and methods of day-to-day activities of officials must be understood and rationalized, based on principles that are consistent with public authorities and local autonomy. democratic conduct of management. It differs from the style of work in other areas of society, first and foremost, in the social activity of officials and the proper appearance of bodies. Multilateral dependence of these or other sources of public administration cannot be reduced to the purposeful, functional and organizational structure of public administration.
It is one of the main subjects involved in public administration. However, there are other government entities in addition to the state. All other government entities, except the state, form part of the “civil society.”
In recent years, the biggest block of the problem of governance in public administration is the training and involvement of managerial personnel. It examines the optimal structure of the staff of state apparatus, the management of the staff of public organizations, the demand for mentality and the style of professional civil servants, the problem of leadership, and the problem of bureaucracy. In the new century, a real basis has been laid in our country for the implementation of human resources policy in line with modern requirements .
The result of public administration is seen in economic progress and in the welfare of citizens, in the social and moral sphere, in social and legal security and in all areas of life, and in the expansion of international cooperation. The society as a whole and each citizen individually have their own opinion on the efficiency and effectiveness of public administration. The evaluation of the quality of public administration by people does not replace the expertise of qualified specialists and the public.
Unfortunately, in none of the countries of the world community, even in the developed countries, the appropriate mechanism of the practice of improving the efficiency of public administration has not been fully developed.
Improvement of the efficiency of public administration should be done, at least on the basis of the following comparisons:
➢ realization of goals corresponding to the needs and needs of society in the process of public administration;
➢ implementation of goals in the management process, reconciliation with objective results of decisions and activities of objective public administration;
➢ reconciliation of objective results of public administration with the needs and interests of society;
➢ reconciliation of public expenditures related to public administration with relevant objective results;
➢ alignment of potential managerial potential with its actual use rate;
➢ Realization of the real needs and needs of society as a whole with public administration, its legal support and regulation.
Improvement of public administration at different levels (citizens, families, labor collectives, public associations and state structures) requires different analytical analyzes. From this perspective, a comprehensive approach to the analysis and improvement of the effectiveness of public administration should be used.
Reports of public authorities and local self-government bodies and individual officials should be based on objective analysis and improvement of public administration efficiency, public discussions and voting on various life issues.
The state gives the constitution the right to association with public organizations, defining the legal status of certain public organizations and protecting their activities. The rights and interests of public organizations are protected by courts, prosecutors and other state bodies.
The state is the top political institution on the economic basis. All state bodies, public organizations, labor collectives, all organizational structures of the political system, operate within the laws that constitute the legal basis of state and public life. The state is constantly evolving. With the development of society, the state, its goals and objectives, management bodies and functions also change. There are different approaches to the concept of state in this regard.
The following are of particular importance in improving the efficiency of public administration.
The use of various methods of collecting and analyzing relevant information to identify and summarize public opinion on a regular basis:
➢ Assessment of the nature and level of public administration. The results should be based on relevant sociological studies;
➢ Implementation of active normative and practical measures to maintain the priority and respect of public opinion;
➢ Improvement of the management process and investigation of citizens’ complaints regarding management shortcomings and errors;
➢ Making management decisions to more fully analyze the information flows associated with negative events and processes and to prevent unnecessary situations;
➢ The greater public and direct contact with public administration agencies and civil servants .
Special attention should be given to the following requirements in the analysis and improvement of public administration:
❖ reduction of the number of employees in public administration;
❖ reduction of management costs in public administration;
❖ strengthening of competition between the departments providing services to the population;
❖ granting of great privileges to the private sector;
❖ comparative analysis of performance indicators of state organizations;
❖ to allow the public servants to lose confidence and confidence;
❖ make full use of working hours;
❖ exemplary behavior;
❖ creating broad opportunities for the development of state entrepreneurship;
❖ creation of a “Public Administration Special Database and Information Telecommunication Center” to improve public administration and increase its efficiency;
❖ development and implementation of projects related to the continuous improvement of the material and moral well-being of the population;
❖ ensuring the application of state regulatory mechanisms for emergency management and life safety;
❖ ensuring the application of the mechanism of state regulation of environmental safety in the country;
❖ ensuring the introduction of a mechanism of state regulation of resources management in the country (natural, material, technical, energy, labor and financial);
❖ ensuring the application of the mechanism of state regulation in the country;
❖ ensuring the application of the mechanism of state regulation of the elimination of social emergencies in the country;
❖ ensuring the application of the mechanism of state regulation of improving the living conditions of the population in the country.
The state is a form of social life that cannot be created by the retail efforts of individual individuals. The state is the main ruling political organization of the society. Its power is the main force that unites, organizes, and forces society. Thus, the state is the only one in the country that has full authority and is officially recognized within the country and internationally, taking into account the interests of all citizens who determine the main directions of the development of society .
The state has developed programs to achieve strategic goals in the future by maximizing the potential resources available in our territories. These programs serve to boost economic growth and increasing well-being of citizens in the region. These programs, which are insured against the negative effects of volatile economic processes, combine the succession of planned, planned steps for large-scale projects.
Doç dr murteza Hasanoğlu